In Hebrew there are no vowel letters. Instead of vowel letters, Hebrew uses vowel points. The vowel points are symbols usually placed below the letters. For example, you know that YLD is yeled and not yalad by looking at the vowel points placed below the letters.

2. The t-like and dash-like symbols are both equivalent to "a" like in art. So it's yalad - "gave birth". 1. These three points are equivalent to "e" like in shell. So it's yeled - "boy".